Reflective teaching is perennial and has become very popular global-extensive. See for instance the work of Cole (1997), Canada, Hatton and Smith (1995), Australia, Zeichner and Liston (1996), United States, Ghaye and Ghaye (1998), United Kingdom, Day (1999) United Kingdom, Farrell (2001), Singapore, Author, ( 2009) Cayman Islands and Hyrkas, Tarkka and llmonen (2000) Finland.
This international-wide popularity has resulted in an abundance of literature at the practice. Despite this abundance and reputation, there seems to be constrained literary assets displaying a way to educate song in a reflective manner. To in addition support this claim, I lately were given an email from a colleague from Seoul National University of Education stating difficulty in finding literature which surely displays the activities worried in teaching song in a reflective way. Therefore, through the usage of selected song-teaching vignettes, this column gives some guiding principles on how to teach song reflectively.
Guiding standards for reflective song coaching
Zeichner and Liston (1996) argue that to train without ‘questioning’ or ‘significantly considering’ your lesson making plans, implementation and evaluation strategies, ‘self’ as teacher, and all elements of the teaching-and-learning dynamics taking place in any educational context, is to educate in a non-reflective manner. A easy evaluation of this announcement exhibits the centrality of ‘thinking’ or ‘essential wondering’ to reflective coaching. Based on this, right here are some of guiding standards to which music teachers should adhere, must they wish to carry out their exercise in a reflective manner. As indicated above, each principle is supported via an instance and/or a vignette.
Question or assume severely about all components of your lesson before it is taught.
Let me exhibit this the usage of an instance of preparing to train a classroom instrumental percussion ensemble lesson. My training system entails wondering or seriously considering: songs or units of rhythms to use as the inspiration for the ensemble, ensuring that those are age-suitable and in the students’ gift musical competencies; the kinds and availability of percussion gadgets and how various rhythmic styles may additionally or won’t ‘paintings’ with the to be had units, and whether students sit down or stand to play the gadgets for the duration of rehearsals and final performance.
Additionally, if tuned percussion units are utilized, alternative notation may want to be prepared earlier. Alternate notation is most effective vital if students were surprising with fashionable notations. I additionally query or severely reflect onconsideration on strategies of teaching, i.E., might I train via rote and, in that case, which aspects of the lesson lends itself to this method, or will I educate with visible useful resource or employ demonstrations, and at what point of the coaching-gaining knowledge of procedure would those be maximum fine to students grasping the idea being taught or the abilities to be found out or advanced. I could also consider classroom management, techniques for decreasing students’ disruptive behaviours and students’ gaining knowledge of universal.
While the overall eradication of all barriers to students’ mastering is impossible, conducting a reflective practise procedure, as indicated above, allows to take away or lessen hindrances to college students’ acquiring new musical fabric or new musical capabilities to be evolved or improved.
Question or assume significantly about your lesson as it is being taught.
Here, a reflective song teacher questions or thinks critically- instantaneous, in ‘the thick of things’- about what’s being taught and the intended final results, occasionally having to assess, revise, and implement new techniques and sports right away (Schön, 1983).
The method of developing and ‘great tuning’, so one can enhance the general ‘sound fine’ of a study room percussion ensemble, will involve discarding or altering rhythmic and melodic styles. These modifications are typically made at some stage in actual rehearsals and via the technique of wondering or wondering, and, certainly, listening significantly ‘immediately inside the thick of things’ (Schön, 1987) as students exercise and/or carry out. Vignette 1 below demonstrates this with the aid of outlining an episode of implementing a lecture room instrumental percussion ensemble, and vignette 2 additionally demonstrates through using a drum-kit lesson episode.
I worked with grade 3 students at a local essential faculty on a lecture room instrumental percussion ensemble. The ‘piece’ I chose for the inspiration of the ensemble was ‘Blue Moon’ through Richard Rogers. The ensemble became slated to perform during a nearby kid’s competition of the arts opposition. Having taught distinctive rhythmic and melodic accompaniment patterns through rote to numerous groups of college students, and listening to the agencies play collectively, there was the want to differ the parts to add ‘hobby’ to the performance. This supposed various the use and depth of diverse contraptions, sound first-class and quantity. After many hours of listening, wondering or wondering critically in the course of rehearsals, multi alterations to various components of the ensemble have been attempted. The system of creating adjustments ‘immediate in the thick of things’ through wondering or important wondering allowed me to get the overall ‘sound’ I desired. The ensemble played throughout the pageant competition and obtained a first area award in that class of the opposition (Vignette 1).
I taught a collection of mixed age and potential college students to play the drum-package. They had been taught fundamental , 3 and four drumming patterns. I used the lecture demonstration method of teaching wherein I spoke about and established each sample on the drum-package. Students then took turns gambling each sample at the kit. All however one became capable of play the patterns as confirmed. As the scholars took their turns, I wondered or concept seriously about feasible motives why that student became unable to play the patterns. I decided (on the spot within the thick of factors, (Schön, 1987) to draw the specified patterns on sheets of A4 paper and positioned these on a song stand, in order that the scholar may want to see what changed into required. To my amazement, he was able to play the specified patterns once they have been now not handiest spoken of and demonstrated, but displayed visually (Vignette 2).
A word of caution: given the character of the song classroom, it is not feasible to question or assume significantly ‘immediately inside the thick of things’ about all elements of the lesson being taught. In such conditions, the instantaneous project to hand or the perceived ‘problem’ should be the primary attention of wondering or important questioning. Vignette 2 absolutely shows this prevalence in which one scholar’s lack of ability to play the required styles became the focus of wondering and essential thinking.
Question or assume critically approximately your lesson after it has been taught.
Post-lesson assessment is an indispensable part of lesson development and not an addendum. Through ordinary assessment, the teacher is higher able to put together paintings with students’ mastering needs in thoughts and will be capable of deal with individual problems when they arise (Ferris & Hedgcock, 1998).
While all teachers have interaction in some form of lesson evaluation, the song teacher who engages in this venture in a reflective manner will now not best question or think significantly approximately all elements of the taught lesson and how numerous elements can be stepped forward the subsequent time it’s miles taught, however also his or her role and involvement.
This method will includes wondering or seriously considering the diploma to which non-public coaching philosophies and competence, ideals and values, his or her very own exercise, consisting of relationships with students, impacted the lesson, making use of what is learnt to also contribute and tell selection-making, making plans, and future motion.
As tune educators, we can improve our practice by means of teaching tune in a reflective way. However, we have to by no means pass over the important fact that the cause we are looking for to enhance exercise is that doing so improves students’ mastering.